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glossary H

A visual record of thought produced by prescribed, hand-controlled movements of an instrument designed for marking a surface. Children are taught what is called manuscript writing. This is more like printing. Both capital letters and small letters are formed individually and are not run together. The characters are written vertically rather than slantwise. Many letters are made of several individual strokes of the pen. After manuscript writing has been mastered, pupils are taught cursive writing. This term is what many people mean when they use the term handwriting or script. In cursive the letters of a word are written in a continuous motion without lifting the pen from the paper. Generally speaking, manuscript writing is easier to learn and to read, while cursive has the advantage of greater speed in composition. A compromise between manuscript and cursive called joined manuscript is sometimes taught. The letter forms are those of ordinary unjoined manuscript, but many of them (such as m and t) are given “tails” that connect them with the following letters. Joined manuscript may be used to make the transition between manuscript and cursive, or it may be taught as a regular form of handwriting. Calligraphy is a more artistic, stylized form of handwriting which is used for decorative manuscripts.

hanging figures
Text figures.

hanging indention
Type set with the first line of the paragraph flush left, and the subsequent lines indented.

hard space
A word space that will not translate into a linebreak. Also called a no-break space.

From the days of setting type with metal or wooden letters: a receptacle for broken or discarded type.

An example of a sans-serif typeface. These first appeared in the late 19th century in Germany and flourished in the 1920s and 30s, when they were regarded as the future of typography. Its more a geometric design than the humanist design of Gill Sans, but less geometric than Avant Garde and Futura. Helvetica has is considered and overused typeface by many type users, novice and expert. Its innate form lacks the elegance of Frutiger’s Univers, but it does retain legibility at small sizes on a computer screen. In fact, 9 point Helvetica (from the bitmap-not interpreted TrueType) is more spatially economical than most other typefaces.

hierachy of scripts
A scheme often employed in manuscript books, where specific script styles were used for specific purposes.

A system of writing, such as that of ancient Egypt, in which pictorial symbols were used to represent meaning or sounds or a combination of meaning and sound. Literally “sacred carvings.”

In digital typography, reducing the weight (thickness) of a typeface so that small-sized fonts print without blurring or losing detail on 300-dots per inch (dpi) printers.

The mathematical instructions added to digital fonts to make them sharp at all sizes and on display devices of different resolutions.

house style
Standard of layout, punctuation, grammar, etc. within one organization.

Humanist letterforms are letterforms originating among the humanists of the Italian Renaissance. They are of two kinds: roman forms based on Carolingian script, and italic forms, which occur for the first time in Italy in the fifteenth century. Humanist letterforms show the clear trace of a broad-nib pen held by a right-handed scribe. They have a modulated stroke and a humanist axis.

Humanist Axis
An oblique stroke axis reflecting the natural inclination of the writing hand.

A method of preparing and publishing text, ideally suited to the computer, in which readers can choose their own paths through the material. To prepare hypertext, you first “chunk” the information into small, manageable units, such as single pages of text. These units are called nodes. You then embed hyperlinks (also called anchors) in the text. When the reader clicks on a hyperlink, the hypertext software displays a different node. The process of navigating among the nodes linked in this way is called browsing. A collection of nodes that are interconnected by hyperlinks is called a web. The World Wide Web (WWW) is a hypertext system on a global scale. Hypertext applications are particularly useful for working with massive amounts of text, such as encyclopedias and multivolume case law reporters.

hyphen -
A punctuation mark used in some compound words, such as gastro-intestinal, seventy-five, and mother-in-law. A hyphen is also used to divide a word at the end of a line of type. Hyphens may appear only between syllables. Thus com-pound is properly hyphenated, but compo-und is wrong.